The Earth consists of four concentric layers: inner core, outer core, mantleand crust. The crust is made up of tectonic plates, which are in constant motion. Earthquakes and volcanoes are most likely to occur at plate boundaries.
The structure of the Earth
The Earth is made up of four distinct layers:
- The inner core is in the centre and is the hottest part of the Earth. It is solid and made up of iron and nickel with temperatures of up to 5,500°C. With its immense heat energy, the inner core is like the engine room of the Earth.
- The outer core is the layer surrounding the inner core. It is a liquid layer, also made up of iron and nickel. It is still extremely hot, with temperatures similar to the inner core.
- The mantle is the widest section of the Earth. It has a thickness of approximately 2,900 km. The mantle is made up of semi-molten rock called magma. In the upper parts of the mantle the rock is hard, but lower down the rock is soft and beginning to melt.
- The crust is the outer layer of the earth. It is a thin layer between 0-60 km thick. The crust is the solid rock layer upon which we live.
There are two different types of crust: continental crust, which carries land, and oceanic crust, which carries water.
The diagram below shows the structure of the earth. In geography, taking a slice through a structure to see inside is called a cross section.
Cross section showing structure of the Earth
The Earth’s crust is broken up into pieces called plates. Heat rising and falling inside the mantle creates convection currents generated by radioactive decay in the core. The convection currents move the plates. Where convection currents diverge near the Earth’s crust, plates move apart. Where convection currents converge, plates move towards each other. The movement of the plates, and the activity inside the Earth, is called plate tectonics.
Plate tectonics cause earthquakes and volcanoes. The point where two plates meet is called a plate boundary. Earthquakes and volcanoes are most likely to occur either on or near plate boundaries.
Different plate boundaries
- At a tensional, constructive or divergent boundary the plates move apart.
- At a compressional, destructive or convergent boundary the plates move towards each other.
- At a conservative or transform boundary the plates slide past each other.
Different exam boards and textbooks may use different names for each of the boundary types. For example, a destructive boundary may also be called acollision boundary. Use any term so long as you use it correctly, but it is best to stick to the terms you have been taught.
At a tensional or constructive boundary the plates are moving apart. The plates move apart due to convection currents inside the Earth.
The Helgafjell volcano on Westman Island, Iceland
As the plates move apart (very slowly),magma rises from the mantle. The magma erupts to the surface of the Earth. This is also accompanied by earthquakes.
When the magma reaches the surface, it cools and solidifies to form a new crust ofigneous rock. This process is repeated many times, over a long period of time.
Eventually the new rock builds up to form a volcano. Constructive boundaries tend to be found under the sea, eg the Mid Atlantic Ridge. Here, chains of underwater volcanoes have formed along the plate boundary. One of these volcanoes may become so large that it erupts out of the sea to form a volcanic island, eg Surtsey and the Westman Islands near Iceland.
At a compressional or destructive boundary the plates are moving towards each other. This usually involves a continental plate and an oceanic plate.
The oceanic plate is denser than the continental plate so, as they move together, the oceanic plate is forced underneath the continental plate. The point at which this happens is called the subduction zone. As the oceanic plate is forced below the continental plate it melts to form magma and earthquakes are triggered. The magma collects to form a magma chamber. This magma then rises up through cracks in the continental crust. As pressure builds up, a volcanic eruption may occur.
As the plates push together, the continental crust is squashed together and forced upwards. This is called folding. The process of folding creates fold mountains. Fold mountains can also be formed where two continental plates push towards each other. This is how mountain ranges such as theHimalayas and the Alps were formed.
A view of the Himalayas from Gorak Shep