The key elements affecting weather are temperature, humidity and air pressure, all of which are influenced by the uneven heating of Earth’s surface by the sun.
Temperature is largely determined by the amount of solar energy in the atmosphere in a given location. This varies according to the number of hours of sunlight received per day and the angle at which it strikes Earth. Other factors affecting temperature are reflection and scattering of sunlight, cloud cover, absorption by gases in the atmosphere, and conditions on Earth’s surface
.Solar energy drives the water cycle and affects the amount of humidity in the atmosphere. Water on the ground evaporates and rises into the atmosphere as water vapor. Under the right conditions, it condenses into clouds and returns to Earth as precipitation.Air pressure is also affected by solar heating. Differences in air pressure cause local winds when air flows from high pressure to low pressure areas. An air mass is a large body of air that has a uniform temperature and humidity. Since cool, dry air is denser than warm, moist air, a cold air mass will move under a warm air mass and push it up. As the warm, humid air rises, it condenses and forms clouds, resulting in precipitation.
The boundary between two air masses is called a front, named after the battle lines where opposing armies clashed during World War I.