An eruption begins when pressure on a magma chamber forces magma up through the conduit and out the volcano’s vents. When the magma chamber has been completely filled, the type of eruption partly depends on the amount of gases and silica in the magma. The amount of silica determines how sticky (level of viscosity) the magma is and water provides the explosive potential of steam.
Obstacles also influence the type of eruption. When the pipe is blocked by a stopple or an accumulation of pumice, the pressure in the pipe will build up very high resulting in an explosion.
When magma reaches earth’s surface it is called lava. It may pour out in gentle streams called lava flows or erupt violently into the air. Rocks ripped loose from the inside of the volcano or torn apart by the gas may be shot into the air with the lava. These rocks blown out of a volcano are called pyroclastic rocks. The rock fragments fall back to earth as dust, ash, bombs, blocks, cinder and pummice.
Volcanic activity is classified by how often a volcano erupts. A volcano may be active, intermittent, dormant, or extinct. Active volcanoes erupt constantly. Intermittent volcanoes erupt fairly regularly. Dormant volcanoes are inactive, but not long enough to determine whether they will erupt again or not. Extinct volcanoes have been inactive since the beginning of recorded history.