Short Run Effect: Resource imbalance
Long Run Effect: Rising urban surplus labor
The problems that may occur in the city due to the rural-urban migration:
– Congestion/ Overcrowding
– Lack of Employment
– Lack of houses
– Pollution increases
– Lack of medical facilities
It is evident from the above graph that there has been a rapid movement of people from the countryside to the cities. The people move to cities such as Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo for the following reasons:
– These cities have big modern buildings
– The schooling is poor in their home towns
– Their home towns are subject to drought and poor soils make it difficult to grow enough food
– The north east of Brazil has very high birth rates; the average family size is eight people
– There are too many people, few town jobs
Rural-urban migration also has negative effects on the countryside.
– Normally the young adults leave, which means there will be a fall in the birth rate.
– The elderly remain behind and contribute less to the economy.
– Less disposable income in the rural area shops may close down, roads deteriorate and houses may be abandoned.
-The countryside begins to stagnate.
|Illustration of the effect of rural-urban migration|
The effects can be summed up as follows:
For urban regions
– Migrants provide industry with a young and inexpensive workforce.
~ However, large scale in-migration results in housing shortages, lack of employment, increase in crime and a lack of services.
For rural regions
– There will be a fall in the birth rate and a decline in food production.